Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is pain during menstrual bleeding without organ pathological abnormalities.
PD is a key women’s health burden and is also one of the public problems in the world.An estimated 140 million hours are lost annually from school or work because of dysmenorrhea; in the US, ~600 million working hours are lost annually as a result of PD.8 PD is the leading cause of work or school absenteeism in women and a leading cause of recurrent short-term school absenteeism among adolescent girls.
PD is believed to be associated with many factors, including behavioral and psychological aspects.
Age <20 years, nulliparity, heavy menstrual flow, smoking, high socioeconomic status, attempts to lose weight, physical activity, disruption of social networks, depression, and anxiety are risk factors of dysmenorrhea.
A long and heavy menstrual flow is related to an increase in the severity of dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea adversely affects the personal life of adolescents and limits their social and academic performance.
A study by Mexican university students found that dysmenorrhea affects 65% of students’ daily activities.Based on this study, the characteristics of menstrual factors that limit students’ daily activities were cramping pain in the lower abdomen (93%), swollen abdomen (67%), irritability (50%), depression (48%), painful or tender breasts (45%), backache (43%), gastrointestinal disturbances (26%), headache (24%), and swelling legs (19%).
In aHailemeskel S, Demissie A, Assefa N. Primary dysmenorrhea magnitude, associated risk factors, and its effect on academic performance: evidence from female university students in Ethiopia. Int J Womens Health. 2016;8:489-496. Published 2016 Sep 19. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S112768ddition to this, menstrual pain and distress can cause disability (loss of function and activity) and handicap (altered social roles)